GRAPHIC DESIGN – Any form of visual artistic representation and Design based on drawing or use of line, as opposed to colour or relief, on a plane surface or Commercial reproduction of artworks such as printing, including text, decorative techniques and illustration
Glossary of Printing Terms
Binding The process of fastening loose sheets of paper together.
Bleed An image or printed color that runs off the edge of the paper. Bleeding increases the amount of paper needed, which may increase the production cost of the job. Bleeds are created by trimming the page to size after the printing is completed.
Blueline A printer’s proof consisting of a white sheet of material printed in blue ink that is used when checking for errors.
Burn Exposing photo-sensitive media to light, as in, burning a plate in offset printing.
Camera Ready The stage in printing when the document is ready to be photographed to make plates for the press. All elements of the document are in their final position, and the document has received its final proofing.
Choke (Choking) When a publication is printed with several interacting spot colors, gaps or color shifts may appear between objects. Choking closes this gap by overlapping a dark color over the boundary of a light color.
Chromalin A color proofing system developed by DuPont.
CMYK Printers use CMYK – representing the colors cyan (a light blue), magenta (a pinkish purple), yellow, and black inks – when printing 4-color process work. These are called subtractive colors, as combining them all gives the color black. Subtracting one or more of these colors will yield any other color. When combined in various percentages, these four inks will create an entire spectrum of colors, including those used in color photographs.
Coated Paper Paper with a layer of coating applied to one or both sides, such as gloss, dull and matte finish. Due to decreased dot gain, coated papers provide sharper images and are used frequently in 4 color process work as well as in black and white halftones.
Color Key A printer’s proof that consists of four sheets of colored acetate that represents the color separation process for a particular job.
Color Matching A color sample book is used to match colors with standard inks used by most printers. The printer will then prepare separate printing plates for each color. The colors are chosen from those provided by a color matching system, such as Pantone. Use of a color matching system permits consistency of the color over time and among different jobs.
Color Separation The separation of full-color artwork or transparencies into the four primary printing ink colors (CMYK).
Composite Image A photograph or other image that is created by a combination of multiple images on a single sheet.
Copy The words (text) that are used in printed material.
Copyright An exclusive right that has been granted by law to a particular creative product
Copywriter Someone who writes copy for advertisements or other promotional material.
Cropping To reduce in size; to remove unwanted elements.
Desktop Publishing The use of a computer to create documents that can be printed. Specialized software is used to add copy and graphics to the document, which is then outputted to a printer or typesetting equipment.
Die-Cutting The use of a sharp, formed piece of metal to cut out specific shapes in a piece of paper.
Digital Data processed using the numbers 0 and 1 through on/off impulses.
Digital Camera A type of camera that stores the photographed image electronically rather than on film. The images are downloaded into a computer where they can be manipulated in a manner similar to a scanner.
Digital Printing New printing technology which permits the linking of printing presses to computers. Benefits include: faster turnaround times, lowered production costs, and the ability to personalize documents. It is frequently used for on-demand or short-run color printing.
Dot Gain The spread of ink on paper, causing the dots which make up the image to print larger than they were on the film or plate. The images may become distorted, appearing darker with less clarity.
Dots per Inch(DPI) A measure of computer screen and printer resolution that is referred to as the number of dots that a device can print or display per inch. The more dots per inch, the sharper the image.
Duotone A two color halftone of the same image created by using two screens, two plates, and two colors.
Emboss The creation of a raised (embossed) image by pressing a shape into a sheet of paper with a metal or plastic die.
Emulsion The chemically treated side of photographic film.
Engraved Printing A printing process using recessed plates. Ink sits in the recessed wells of the plate, and when pressure is applied, raised letters and images appear on the front of the page.
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) A computer graphics file format developed by Adobe Systems that usually contains object-oriented files.
File Transfer Program (FTP) Computer software that permits the exchange of information between computers.
Focaltone A color matching system for process color.
Foil Stamping The application of foil to paper. May also be combined with embossing for added interest.
Four(4) Color Process A method of printing that uses dots of cyan, magenta, yellow and black to recreate the continuous tones and variety of colors in a color image.
GIF A graphic file format commonly used by computer bulletin boards; not appropriate for printing.
Graphic An item to be printed that is not copy (text); includes photographs and illustrations.
Graphic Design The use of graphic elements and text to communicate an idea or concept.
Graphic Designer The person who develops the graphic designs.
Halftone The method by which photographs and other images are printed by using cells of dots to simulate the tones between light and dark. A printing press is not able to change the tone of ink, therefore dots of color are used to trick the eye into seeing a continuous tone image. To accomplish this, the photo is shot through a mesh of a screen that breaks the image into tiny dots. The closer the lines of the screen, the smaller the dots and the more dots per inch, leading to a crisper image.
Hexachrome A color separation process developed by Pantone which uses 6 instead of 4 process colors.
Illustrator Someone who develops original artwork for use in commercial applications.
Imagesetter A high resolution device that will print directly to plate ready film, i.e. a high resolution printer.
Imposition The process of arranging the pages of copy so that when the sheets are printed and folded for binding the pages will be in the proper order.
JPEG A computer graphics file format that is not typically used in printing due to low resolution.
Kern The adjustment of the spacing between letters in order to make them more visually pleasing and balanced on the sheet.
Leading The space between lines of type, measured from the baseline of one line to the baseline of the next. The quantity is measured in points, such as 6 point type, 8 point, etc. Each point equals approximately 1/72th of an inch.
Lupe A magnifying lens used by printers to examine the details of printed materials. Use of a lupe permits an individual to see the individual color halftone dots used in process color printing.